The IAUS 346 will be the first IAU symposium devoted to high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). The time has come to synthesize new knowledge from the incredibly rich trove of data, models, and theories on HMXBs accumulated over the last 50 years. The Symposium will bring together a broad range of scientists with the aim to share their insights and further advance our understanding of HMXBs. New powerful synergetic approaches will be developed and put in a broad astrophysical context during the XXX IAU General Assembly. The Symposium will build a bridge between mature field of massive binary astrophysics and nascent field of gravitational wave astronomy. This large international meeting will consolidate our knowledge on massive stars, binary evolution, accretion physics, compact objects and gravitational wave sources to give us a new perspective on the cosmos illuminated by HMXBs.